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However, the Varkari poet-saint Tukaram proposed a different etymology—that Vitthala is composed of the words vittha ignorance and la one who accepts , thus meaning ‘one who accepts innocent people who are devoid of knowledge’. This is evidenced by the liturgical call— Pundalikavarada Hari Vitthala! The emergence of Vithoba was concurrent with the rise of a “new type of lay devotee”, the Varkari. The Varkari texts are: The image is then dressed to receive morning devotions. While Vishnu and Shiva were bound in rigid ritualistic worship and Brahmin priestly control, Vithoba, “the God of the subaltern, became increasingly human. This temple claims a history of over years and is well associated with the GSB community in and around the Kayamkulam region.

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Vitthal Temple, Pandharpur vtithal-rakhumai his main temple. Page 1 of 1. He is generally considered a manifestation of the god Vishnu or his avatarKrishna.

This can be found in the Shivneri Caves. Bhandarkar, Ramakrishna Gopal []. Essays on Religion in Maharashtra. Vithoba legends revolve around his devotee Pundalikwho is credited with bringing the deity to Pandharpur, and around Vithoba’s role as a saviour to the poet-saints of the Varkari faith. Panduranga-Mahatmya by a Brahmin called Sridhara; another work of the same vitthap-rakhumai written by Prahlada Vitthal-rkhumai and also in the abhanga s of various poet-saints.


Bhandarkar all suggest that Pundalik tried to unify Shiva and Vishnu, and that this sect originated in Karnataka. In Tamil Nadu, Vitthala shrines are found in SrirangamVittalapuram near thiruporur and in Tirunelveli districtvitthal–rakhumai ThennangurGovindapuram near Kumbakonam and sculptures are also found in Kanchi.

Rukmini is traditionally viewed as the wife of Krishna.

Pandharpur festival Man with bead cap and necklace vitthal-rakhumwi vermillion on head. This last theory is based on a reference to Vithoba as “Kannada” belonging to Karnataka in the work of the first of the poet-saints, Dnyaneshwar. The Brahmin texts include: The celebrations in Ashadha and Kartik continue until the full-moon in those months, concluding with torchlight processions.

These aratis sing of Vithoba, who wears yellow garments a characteristic of Vishnu and is served by Garuda mount of Vishnu and Hanuman the monkey god, devotee of Rama —an avatar of Vishnu. The Varkari poet-saints are known for their unique genre of devotional lyric, the abhangdedicated to Vithoba and composed in Marathi.

Vitthal Rakhumai Stock Photos & Vitthal Rakhumai Stock Images – Alamy

Vitthala, Panduranga, Pandharinath, Hari and Narayan. In the times of Muslim rulers, the vitrhal-rakhumai faced stagnation. Ek Mahasamanvayaopines that Vithoba worship may be even older—” Vedic or pre-Vedic”, hence pre-dating the worship of Krishna. Pandharpur festival Brass bangles on feet. Pundalik threw a brick outside for Krishna to rest on.


The ritual worship by the priests is restricted to five days each around the Ashadha June—July and Kartik October—November Ekadashiswhen a large number of Varkaris participate in the yatras. Zelliot, Eleanor; Berntsen, Maxine In some traditions though, Vithoba is also worshipped as a form of Shiva. Shima Iwao June—September Public performance of this musical devotion led to the spread of the Vithoba faith, which accepted vitthal-rakbumai, Shudras and outcaste ” untouchables “, something forbidden in classical brahminical Hinduism.


Mate of vitthal-rakhuma Deccan CollegePundalik—who is assumed to be a historical figure—was instrumental in persuading the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana alias Bittidev to build the Pandharpur temple dedicated to Vishnu.

Krishnaism Vaishnavism Krishna Janmashtami Holi. However, since the 13th century, the poet-saints like NamdevEknath and Tukaram identified Vithoba with Vishnu.

Vithoba – Wikipedia

He wears a necklace of tulsi -beads, embedded with the legendary kaustubha gem, and makara-kundala fish-shaped earrings that the poet-saint Tukaram relates to the iconography of Vishnu. Pundarika asks Krishna to remain in this form on the banks of the river Bhima.

According to the first, the ascetic Pundarika Pundalik is described as vitthal-rakhmai devotee of god Vishnu and dedicated to the service of his parents. Mysticism in Maharashtra PDF. As discussed in the devotional works section above, the Pundalik legend appears in the Sanskrit scriptures Skanda Purana and Padma Purana.

In the 17th century, Maratha artists sculpted an image of Pandharpur’s Vithoba in the Buddha’s place on a panel showing Vishnu’s avatars.